健康生活學

服用營養補充品是否越多越好?最佳服用時間及禁忌全面睇

2023/01/13

市面上有各式各樣的營養補充品,究竟怎樣服用才能發揮最大的效用?服用時有什麼地方需要注意?應該在飯前或是飯後服用?亂服營養補充品小則影響營養吸收,大則影響身體的健康。立即了解各種營養補充品服用時間及禁忌,避免弄巧反拙。

維他命(Vitamins

  • 功效:有助新陳代謝、預防慢性疾病、維持正常食慾、精神健康和抵抗力1
  • 分為兩大類型1-3
    • 脂溶性維他命維他命A、D、E、K
    • 水溶性維他命維他命B、C
  • 最佳服用時間1-3
    • 脂溶性維他命:飯後
    • 水溶性維他命:空腹
  • 加乘作用
    • 同時服用維他命C及E可以加強抗氧化效能4
    • 同時服用維他命D及K可以加強骨骼及心血管健康5
  • 注意事項

脂溶性維他命

多餘的脂溶性維他命會儲存在肝臟,過量服用可能引致肝臟受損、脫髮、頭痛等反效果1-3

水溶性維他命

  • 服用過量維他命B後的尿液會呈鮮黃色1-3
  • 過量的水溶性維他命會經尿液排出體外1-3

*如從日常飲食中能攝取足夠的維他命,正常情況下並不需服用額外的補充品6

詳細了解每種維他命的功效:https://bit.ly/3ke9Wc4

鎂(Magnesium

  • 功效:維持骨骼健康、新陳代謝、血糖和肌肉運作7
  • 最佳服用時間:飯後服用鎂可避免腹瀉等不適8
  • 禁忌7
    • 過量服用可能導致腹瀉、噁心、腸胃不適,甚至心臟驟停
    • 鎂會影響治療骨質疏鬆藥物雙磷酸鹽(Bisphosphonates)吸收
    • 部分胃藥及利尿劑會影響體內鎂的水平

鋅(Zinc

  • 功效:提升免疫系統、加速傷口癒合9
  • 最佳服用時間:飯前1-2小時;如服用鋅會導致腸胃不適,建議在飯後服用10
  • 加乘作用:同時服用維他命A及鋅可以加強T細胞功能,增強免疫力11
  • 禁忌9
    • 過量服用可能導致噁心、頭暈、頭痛、胃痛、嘔吐、降低食慾
    • 服用過多鋅補充品會影響鎂吸收
    • 同時服用抗生素會影響其吸收,建議服用抗生素2小時前或4-6小時後才服用鋅補充品
    • 同時服用類風濕性關節炎藥物青霉胺(Penicillamine)會影響藥物效力
    • 噻嗪類利尿劑(Thiazide diuretics)有排鋅作用,造成反效果

鈣(Calcium

  • 功效:預防骨質疏鬆、負責神經傳遞、肌肉收縮、凝血12
  • 最佳服用時間:一天中分數次服用(不多於500毫克)有利人體吸收13
  • 加乘作用:身體需要維他命D才能吸收鈣13
  • 禁忌13,14
    • 過量服用可能導致噁心、便祕、胃氣脹、腎結石,甚至增加患心血管疾病及前列腺癌的風險
    • 同時服用鋰增加高血鈣風險
    • 同時服用甲狀腺藥物左旋甲狀腺素(Levothyroxine)會影響藥物效力,建議兩者隔4小時服用
    • 同時服用抗生素會影響藥物吸收,建議兩者隔2小時服用
    • 攝取過多蛋白質及鈉會促進腎臟排洩鈣質

NMNNicotinamide mononucleotide

  • 功效:抗衰老、促進新陳代謝、抗血管老化、提升肌肉力量。15 NMN能被身體快速吸收,轉化成NAD+,發揮功效;直接服用分子較大的NAD+則較難被身體吸收15
  • 最佳服用時間:早上16
  • 禁忌15,17
    • 暫時未有研究顯示服用NMN對人體有害
    • 過量服用可能導致噁心、頭暈、頭痛

詳細了解NMN:https://bit.ly/3XKfB8n

褪黑激素(Melatonin

  • 功效:改善睡眠障礙、減壓18
  • 最佳服用時間:睡前、切勿空腹服用18
  • 加乘作用:同時服用褪黑激素、維他命C或E可加強抗氧化作用19
  • 禁忌18,20
    • 副作用:嗜睡、噁心、頭暈、頭痛
    • 同時服用抗抑鬱藥、降血壓藥、非類固醇消炎藥、避孕藥、安眠藥等會影響藥物效力
    • 同時飲用咖啡會影響褪黑激素吸收
    • 同時服用草藥可能會使人神志不清醒
    • 避免飲酒及吸煙
    • 懷孕或哺乳的婦女避免服用

魚油(Fish oil

  • 功效:降血脂、改善類風濕關節炎、抗發炎。21,22 含豐富Omega-3(EPA、DHA)23
  • 最佳服用時間:用餐時或飯後,食物中的脂肪可以幫助吸收24
  • 禁忌21,23,25
  • 副作用:口臭、汗臭、胃灼熱、頭痛、噁心、腹瀉
    • 過量服用可能導致出血、影響免疫系統
    • 同時服用降血壓藥會令血壓過低
    • 同時服用避孕藥會影響魚油的功效
    • 同時服用抗凝血藥可能會增加瘀傷或出血風險
    • 海鮮敏感人士避免服用

透明質酸(Hyaluronic acid

  • 功效:保濕、延緩皮膚衰老26
  • 最佳服用時間:早晚皆可27
  • 加乘作用
    • 同時使用口服及外用透明質酸可改善乾眼症28
    • 同時服用維他命C及透明質酸可加強抗氧化作用29
  • 禁忌
    • 口服透明質酸大致上安全;注射透明質酸則應由專業人士進行30,31
    • 透明質酸可能促進癌細胞生長,患有癌症或有癌症病史人士應避免服用32

益生菌(Probiotics

  • 功效:緩解消化不適與便秘、維持腸道生態平衡(抑制有害菌的生長、為身體提供維他命和短鏈脂肪酸等)、調節免疫系統功能33,34
  • 最佳服用時間:用餐時或飯前30分鐘35
  • 禁忌33,36
    • 副作用:腹脹、腹部絞痛、腹瀉、腸胃不適
    • 過量服用可能導致呼吸困難、昏迷
    • 避免同時服用抗生素、抗真菌藥
    • 有免疫力問題或重病患者只能服用特別菌株

詳細了解益生菌:https://bit.ly/3IPR917

卵磷脂(Lecithin

  • 功效:改善懷孕或哺乳不適、降膽固醇、改善脂肪肝37,38
  • 最佳服用時間:用餐時或飯後,食物中的脂肪可以幫助吸收24
  • 禁忌38-40
    • 副作用:腹瀉、噁心、腹痛、飽脹感
    • 過量服用導致身體的卵磷脂代謝物膽鹼過高,增加患心血管疾病的風險
    • 同時服用抗凝血藥會影響藥效

 

身體情況因人而異,每人需要的營養補充品種類、劑量亦各有不同,而部分營養補充品亦可能會加入其他成份,應小心選擇。選購/服用前有任何疑問,應先向醫生查詢。

參考資料:

  1. 衞生署家庭健康服務. 維他命. Available at: https://www.studenthealth.gov.hk/tc_chi/health/health_dn/health_dn_vit.html. Accessed 6 January 2023
  2. Ravisankar et al. The comprehensive review on fat soluble vitamins. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy. 2015.
  3. Pinto et al. Riboflavin. Advances in nutrition. 2016.
  4. Walter et al. Functions of vitamins beyond recommended dietary allowances (Vol. 55). Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers. 2001.
  5. Van Ballegooijen et al. The synergistic interplay between vitamins D and K for bone and cardiovascular health: a narrative review. International journal of endocrinology. 2017.
  6. National Health Service. Do I need vitamin. Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/common-health-questions/food-and-diet/do-i-need-vitamin-supplements/. Accessed 6 January 2023
  7. Healthdirect. Magnesium and your health. Available at: https://www.healthdirect.gov.au/magnesium. Accessed 6 January 2023
  8. University of Rochester Medical Center. Magnesium. Available at: https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?contenttypeid=19&contentid=Magnesium. Accessed 6 January 2023
  9. National Institute of Health. Zinc. Available at: https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Zinc-HealthProfessional/. Accessed 6 January 2023
  10. Mayoclinic. Zinc supplement (oral route, parenteral route). Available at: https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/zinc-supplement-oral-route-parenteral-route/precautions/drg-20070269?p=1. Accessed 6 January 2023
  11. Li et al. Synergistic effect of zinc and vitamin A on T cell functions. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. 2007.
  12. 衞生署家庭健康服務. 攝取足夠鈣質. Available at: https://www.fhs.gov.hk/tc_chi/health_info/woman/30120.html. Accessed 6 January 2023
  13. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. Calcium and Vitamin D: Important at Every Age. Available at: https://www.bones.nih.gov/health-info/bone/bone-health/nutrition/calcium-and-vitamin-d-important-every-age. Accessed 6 January 2023
  14. National Institute of Health. Calcium. Available at: https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Calcium-HealthProfessional/. Accessed 6 January 2023
  15. The Official Info Source for Nicotinamide Mononucleotide. What is NMN. Available at: https://www.nmn.com/what-is-nmn. Accessed 6 January 2023
  16.  Hwang et al. Possible adverse effects of high-dose nicotinamide: mechanisms and safety assessment. Biomolecules. 2020.
  17. Sadria et al. Aging affects circadian clock and metabolism and modulates timing of medication. Iscience. 2021.
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  21. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Omega-3 Supplements: In Depth. Available at: https://www.nccih.nih.gov/health/omega3-supplements-in-depth. Accessed 6 January 2023
  22. Maroon et al. Natural anti-inflammatory agents for pain relief. Surgical neurology international. 2010.
  23. WebMD. Fish Oil – Uses, Side Effects, and More. Available at: https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-993/fish-oil. Accessed 6 January 2023
  24. Maki et al. Strategies to improve bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from ethyl ester concentrates. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care. 2019.
  25. Mayoclinic. Fish oil. Available at: https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements-fish-oil/art-20364810. Accessed 6 January 2023
  26. Di Cerbo. A dietary supplement improves facial photoaging and skin sebum, hydration and tonicity modulating serum fibronectin, neutrophil elastase 2, hyaluronic acid and carbonylated proteins. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology. 2015.
  27. Healthline. How to Use Hyaluronic Acid the Right Way — and Why You Should. Available at: https://www.healthline.com/health/beauty-skin-care/how-to-use-hyaluronic-acid. Accessed 6 January 2023
  28. Kim et al. Oral hyaluronic acid supplementation for the treatment of dry eye disease: a pilot study. Journal of ophthalmology. 2019.
  29. Huang et al. Synergistic effect of l‐ascorbic acid and hyaluronic acid on the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase‐3 and− 9 in human chondrocytes. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials. 2018.
  30. Oe et al. Oral hyaluronan relieves knee pain: a review. Nutrition journal. 2015.
  31. WedMD. Hyaluronic Acid – Uses, Side Effects, and More. Available at: https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-1062/hyaluronic-acid. Accessed 6 January 2023
  32. Simone et al. Caution should be used in long-term treatment with oral compounds of hyaluronic acid in patients with a history of cancer. Clinical drug investigation. 2015.
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  34. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Probiotics: What You Need To Know. Available at: https://www.nccih.nih.gov/health/probiotics-what-you-need-to-know. Accessed 6 January 2023
  35. Tompkins et al. The impact of meals on a probiotic during transit through a model of the human upper gastrointestinal tract. Beneficial microbes. 2011.
  36. WedMD. Adult Probiotic – Uses, Side Effects, and More. Available at: https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-163888/adult-probiotic-oral/details. Accessed 6 January 2023
  37. Winchester Hospital. Lecithin. Available at: https://www.winchesterhospital.org/health-library/article?id=21680. Accessed 6 January 2023
  38.  Smith. Lecithin (Phosphatidylcholine): healthy dietary supplement or dangerous toxin?. The Natural Products Journal. 2016.
  39. WedMD. Lecithin – Uses, Side Effects, And More. Available at: https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-966/lecithin. Accessed 6 January 2023
  40. Andrioli et al. Differential effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil or soy lecithin on human platelet adhesion. Thrombosis and haemostasis. 1999.